Wednesday, November 5, 2008

Renal Week 2008: CVD and CKD: Case 7

66 yo woman with ESRD due to analgesic nephropathy. Hx of Crohn's Disease. Extended criteria deceased donor allograft transplant 1.5 yrs ago.

Now SBP of 160.

Next Speaker Ojo. Greatest name in Nephrology.

CVD and CKD in Transplantation

Progressive reduction of acute rejection since 2000 from 17.4 to 10.3% at one year. This should improve outcome of graft and patient; however post-transplant life-span has decreased from 14 in 1995 to 12.7 in '06.

CVD is the explanation for this conundrum.

After the first year the most common cause of loss of graft is: death with a functioning graft (56%). This is twice as common as number 2, chronic rejection (21%).

43.5% die of CVD.

Hypertension, DM, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, and anemia are all more prevalent in transplant patients than transplant candidates or prevalent dialysis patients.

Focus on immunosupressant drugs
  • In HIV patients with lower cd4 have higher higher CVD death rate
  • Same relationship of CD4 to CVD is seen in patients with radiation exposure (Hiroshima) causing lower cd4 counts
  • also seen in transplant patients.
Rabbit data showing that increased cholesterol plaques with concurrent CSA, without change in lipid profile. Roselaar jci 1995 96 1389.

Steroids are dangerous even at low doses in the normal population.

CSA increase BP.

CSA also causes endothelial dysfunction.

Sirolimus is antiatherogenic, as seen in cardiac stents.
MMF also appears to reduce cholesterol plaque Romero Atherosclerosis 2000: 152:127-133.

Cr alone is a predictor of CVD independent of immunosupression and traditional risk factors.

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